Bhai Moola, Bhai Sooja, Bhai Chandu, Bhai Ramdas Bhandari, Bhai Bala and Bhai Sayeen Das went to Sri Guru Arjun Dev Sahib Ji and asked a question about how the system of Karma works in Sikhi. They asked if the Paap (ਪਾਪ - sins) and Punn (ਪੁੰਨ - good deeds) of Gursikhs are accounted for and rewarded separately or are they netted out against each other and only the remaining Paap or Punn are rewarded. In other words, their question was that as an example if someone has 100 Punns and 60 Paaps, then do they pay for 100 minus 60 = 40 Punns only or do they get the fruits of 100 Punns and 60 Paaps separately. Do our Punns delete our Paaps and do our Paaps dampen the fruits of our Punns or are the Paaps and Punns accounted for separately and the Jeev gets fruits of all the Punns and Paaps they commit.

Sri Guru Arjun Dev Sahib Ji replied that for the purpose of the accountability of Karma, there are 4 kinds of Sikhs:
1. Sehkaam Karmi ( ਸਿਹਕਰਮੀ )
2. Nehkaam Karmi ( ਨਿਹਕਰਮੀ )
3. Upaashna wale ( ਉਪਾਸ਼ਨਾ ਵਾਲੇ )
4. Giani ( ਗਿਆਨੀ )

Guru Sahib Ji gave an analogy to explain the answer :

In the rule of a king, there are 4 kinds of citizens.
1. The first kind pay taxes based on a certain percentage and no matter what, they have to pay their share.
2. The second kind have a fixed amount that they pay as taxes and even if their income is high, still they end up paying little taxes and get to keep most of their wealth.
3. The third kind are close to the king and sometimes present the king with good horses or other gifts and as a result they enjoy tax free income and also get many other perks.
4. The fourth kind are the Maafi citizens who are very close to the king. They go about travelling with the king and instead of paying taxes, they get paid by the state for being close to the king.

In the same way, there are 4 kinds of Sikhs:

1. Sehkaam Karmi - the first type of Sikhs - they are Sikhs in appearance only but all their priorities are Maya related. Any Karma related to Dharma that they do is only to forward their Maya related agenda. Any Paath or Naam Simran they do is only for their selfish needs. On the heads of such people, the stick of Jamdoots (messengers of death) always remains. Their Paaps and Punns are accounted for separately. If they have total of 280 Karma which include 80 Punns and 200 Paaps, they get fruits of all 280 Karams and none of their sins are netted out against their good deeds. Depending on their Karma, they enjoy the fruits of heaven and hell in the next world. Since they are Sikhs, they are occasionally are given opportunities to earn Gurmat related Karma - Naam Simran and Gurbani Paath.

2. Nehkaam Karmi - the second type of Sikhs - they become Sikhs not out of some greed or vested interest but because they like to be Dharmi (religious). They do good deeds and religious deeds out of pleasure and because such is their natural disposition, as opposed to doing it just for their Maya-related agenda. Even though they have a natural tendency to do good deeds, still they do end up committing many sins as well. Due to a lack of serious Naam Simran and Gurbani Paath, they come under the influence of Maya and 5 Vikaars. Their Paaps and Punns are taken together and evened out and they only pay for their remaining Karma. As an example, if a Nehkaam Karmi Sikh has a total of 280 Karma which include 80 Punns and 200 Paaps, most of their Karma are netted out and they pay the fruits of only 120 Paaps. Their sins are netted out against their good deeds and they seldom go to hell as a punishment of their sins. They pay for their Paaps via hardships. They get to be born in homes of Sikhs and are given ample opportunities to engage in Naam Simran and Gurbani Paath.

3. Upaashna Wale Sikh: Upaashna wale Sikhs are such Sikhs who have their priority set on Naam and Gurbani Paath only. Their natural disposition is religious and they willingly do only good Karma. They always do Punns and spend time in Naam Abhyaas and Gurbani Paath but still contrary to their natural disposition, they commit some Paaps (sins) as a result of their Prarabadh (destiny) or when they come under the influence of Vikaars. Guru Sahib Ji forgives their Paaps and if such Gursikhs don't reach their spiritual destiny, then they take another Janam and are born in the homes of Gursikhs and eventually get Gyaan and are released from birth and death.

4. Gyani: Gyan Gursikhs who have realized their self as well as Vaheguru, consider this world to be Mithiya (false). They reject the system of Karma and depend solely on Vaheguru Ji's Naam. Since they don't associate with Haume, none of their Karma falls under the Karma system. Just as darkness does not go near sun, same way Bikaars and Paaps don't go near Gyani Gursikhs. They are free from Karma. They neither get rewarded for their Punns nor do they get punished for their mistakes. First of all they don't commit any mistake but if they unwittingly do commit a mistake, they are not held accountable for it: ਜੇ ਬਾਹਰਹੁ ਭੁਲਿ ਚੁਕਿ ਬੋਲਦੇ ਭੀ ਖਰੇ ਹਰਿ ਭਾਣੇ॥.
Then the Gursikhs asked Guru Sahib Ji as to what happens to the Punns and Paaps that are unwittingly done by a Gyani.
Guru Sahib said that since the Gyani rises above the effect of Karma, any Punns that they do during their life here on Earth are given to the ones who serve them. In other words, the Gursikhs who serve the Gyani Gursikhs, get the rewards of the Punns done by Gyani Gursikhs.
On the other hand, the ones who slander Gyani Gursikhs, get the fruit of unwitting mistakes committed by the Gyani Gursikhs. Gyani stays Nirlep (aloof) from all effects and fruits of Paaps and Punns.

As for the future of these 4 types of Gursikhs, the Sehkaam Karmi Sikhs are born in heavens and other high realms where they enjoy good life (according to their Punns) and and then come back on Earth and have a life dictated by their remaining Punns and Paaps. They occasionally get chance to earn Gursikhi and eventually over many life forms, slowly rise to become Nehkarmi Sikhs.

The Nehkaam Karmi and Upaashna waale Gursikhs get to go to higher Khands and are reborn here in this world in the homes of Gursikhs. They get many chances of doing Bhagti and they get to meet Sadh Sangat. Eventually they become Gyani Gursikhs and get everlasting blissful life in Sachkhand.

Gyani Gursikhs of course get to go to Sachkhand after exhausting their time here on Earth.

Let's take a worldly example to illustrate the point that all sinner are not treated equally by Vaheguru. If a repeat offender goes to the court of a worldly judge, the judge is likely to give him the maximum sentence possible and on the other hand if a first time offender goes to the same judge for the same offense as the repeat offender, then the judge is likely to go easy on the first time offender. In the same way, a Gursikh who indulges in Naam, Gurbani and Punns for the most part would get much less punishment for a rare sin as opposed to a Sikh of first stage who is still very much engaged in Maya.

This Updesh of Guru Sahib Ji should prompt us to strive to become Gyani Gursikhs and at least at the current time be at the level of Upaashna waale Gursikh, who are always eager to do Bhagti by engaging in Naam Abhyaas, Gurbani Kirtan and Paath. Guru Sahib Kirpa Kran.


In Gurbani, particularly in Sri Dasam Granth Sahib, certain terms are used to describe dates and events.
For example, in Sri Benti Chaupai Sahib, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji writes about the day that the Chaupai Sahib Bani was composed :-
ਭਾਦ੍ਰਵ ਸੁਦੀ ਅਸਟਮੀ ਰਵਿ ਵਾਰਾ ॥
In the month of Bhadon - on Sudi 8 - on a Sunday.
ਤੀਰ ਸਤੁਦ੍ਰਵ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸੁਧਾਰਾ ॥੪੦੫॥
On the banks of the Sutlej River, this bani was completed.

Or sometimes we hear of dates of historical events described in certain words :-
For example, the Parkash Dihara of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji is on Poh Sudi 7.

What is Bhadon Sudi 8 or Poh Sudi 7?

Bhadon or Poh is the month as in the Indian Calender - as described in Gurbani in Baramaha Paath.
Sudi 8 means the 8th day AFTER the new moon(Massia) - counting the new moon day as zero.

To understand better, study the image below. It describes the day of Poh Sudi 7 in the year 2017.

In year 2022, month of Bhadon is from Aug 17 to Sep 16.
Massia(New Moon) is on Aug 27.
So the ucharan date of Sri Chaupai Sahib in the year 2022 is on 4th September 2022 (Bhadon Sudi 8).

NOTE : While the above is correct, there are some years when adjustments are made to the calender. This is because ...
A solar year (the time it takes Earth to orbit the sun) lasts around 365 days.
A lunar year (12 full cycles of the Moon) is roughly 354 days.


Some lines of gurbani are repeated - some even a few times. For example, in Japji Sahib, the following line occurs 4 times.
ਨਾਨਕ ਭਗਤਾ ਸਦਾ ਵਿਗਾਸੁ ॥ ਸੁਣਿਐ ਦੂਖ ਪਾਪ ਕਾ ਨਾਸੁ ॥
Nanak Bhagta Sda Vigaas Sunair Dukh Paap Ka Naas
So to be able to memorise Japji Sahib, it helps to know and remember where these repetitions occur.
In the same way, there are repetitions in Sri Jaap Sahib too. This document helps to show the repetitions in Sri Jaap Sahib and knowing them helps to memorise Sri Jaap Sahib.


The following is based on the limited understanding of the author who does not claim that everything is exactly as stated.

According to the Vedas :
Satjug lasts for 1,728,000 years
Tretayug - 1,296,000 years
Duapar - 864,000 years
Kalyug - 432,000 years
Total = 4,320,000 years - also called a Mahayug.

One Mahayug = 4320K years

1000 Mahayug = One Kalpa = one day time of Brahma's life.
During his day, life exists in universe.
At the end, MahaParlo comes and all life (planets etc) cease to exist.

1000 Mahayug = One Pralaya = one night time of Brahma's life.
In night time, no form of life exists.

Brahma lives for 100 years (360 days per year).
This is equal to 4,320,000 * 1000 * 2 * 360 * 100
= 311,040,000,000,000 Earth years

Satjug 1,728K years = 432K * 4
Tretayug 1,296K years = 432K * 3
Duapar 864K years = 432K * 2
Kalyug 432K years = 432K * 1

The legs of Dharma are used to denote the strength and steadfastness of Dharma.

Satyug (432K * 4 years) is supported by 4 legs of Dharma ie very stable.
Average Human life = 100,000 years.

Tretayug (432K * 3 years) is supported by 3 legs of Dharma.
Average Human life = 10,000 years.

Duapar (432K * 2 years) is supported by 2 legs of Dharma.
Average Human life = 1,000 years.

Kalyug (432K * 1 years) is supported by 1 leg of Dharma ie very shaky.
Average Human life = 100 years.

Gurbani says that before the yugs started with creation as we see it, for 36 yugs, there was utter silence and absolute darkness. After 36 yugs, God gave a hukam and instantly all of creation was created.

ਕੇਤੇ ਜੁਗ ਵਰਤੇ ਗੁਬਾਰੈ ॥
For many ages, only darkness prevailed;

ਤਾੜੀ ਲਾਈ ਅਪਰ ਅਪਾਰੈ ॥
the infinite, endless Lord was absorbed in the primal void.

ਧੁੰਧੂਕਾਰਿ ਨਿਰਾਲਮੁ ਬੈਠਾ ਨਾ ਤਦਿ ਧੰਧੁ ਪਸਾਰਾ ਹੇ ॥੧॥
He sat alone and unaffected in absolute darkness; the world of conflict did not exist.

ਜੁਗ ਛਤੀਹ ਤਿਨੈ ਵਰਤਾਏ ॥
Thirty-six ages passed like this.

ਜਿਉ ਤਿਸੁ ਭਾਣਾ ਤਿਵੈ ਚਲਾਏ ॥
He causes all to happen by the Pleasure of His Will.

ਤਿਸਹਿ ਸਰੀਕੁ ਨ ਦੀਸੈ ਕੋਈ ਆਪੇ ਅਪਰ ਅਪਾਰਾ ਹੇ ॥੨॥
No rival of His can be seen. He Himself is infinite and endless.
(Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji 1026)

ਛਤੀਹ ਜੁਗ ਗੁਬਾਰੁ ਸਾ ਆਪੇ ਗਣਤ ਕੀਨੀ ॥
For thirty-six ages, there was utter darkness. Then, the Lord revealed Himself.

ਆਪੇ ਸ੍ਰਿਸਟਿ ਸਭ ਸਾਜੀਅਨੁ ਆਪਿ ਮਤਿ ਦੀਨੀ ॥
He Himself created the entire universe. He Himself blessed it with understanding.
(Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji 949)

It is stated in Sri Sarabloh Granth and Vaaran Bhai Sahib Gurdas Ji that Sri Guru Nanak Dev Sahib Ji did intense meditation for 36 yugs to prepare the Waheguru Mantar.
There are four letters in Waheguru mantar.
It took 9 yug to get one letter Wa to be completed.
It took another 9 yug to get the next letter He ready.
Then, another nine yug for the next letter Gu.
Finally, in another nine yug came the last letter Ru.
Gurbani says that there was total darkness for 36 yugs and in that 36 yugs, the Waheguru Gurmantar was prepared.
This is equal to 1430K * 36 = 51,480,000 Earth years.
For more information on this, please read page 280 of the book DIVINE MYSTIC REFLECTIONS ON GURMAT BOOK 1


There is a link between music and our moods. A lullaby soothes us to sleep; a love song arouses our amorousness; pop music sets our feet tapping; while devotional songs evoke our spirituality.
Our sages and musicologists of yore studied this relationship between music and the human psyche and evolved raags that linked our changing moods to changes in nature.
What emerged was what we refer to as the time cycle of raags. There is a special raag for each period of the day., representing each mood.
A raag has a preferred timing associated with it. There are some morning raags, evening raags, afternoon raags, etc.
Seasonal ragas are to be sung during the particular season (at any time of the day and night) are Malar in the rainy season (July to September) and Basant in the spring season (March and April). If sung out of season, the timing indicated below should be followed.

6am - 9am

9am - 12 noon

12 Noon - 3pm

3pm - 6pm

6pm - 9pm
Sri Raag
Maali Gauri

9pm - 12 midnight
Nat Narayan

12 midnight - 3am

3am - 6am


ਅੱਦਾ - Aadha
AADHA is to denote half or 50%

ਸਵਾ - SWA
For numbers, Sawa = 1/4 more
For example
Swa 2 is 2.25
Swa 4 is 4.25
Swa 6 is 6.25

For time, it is 15 minutes more.
For example
Swa 2 is 2:15
Swa 4 is 4.15
Swa 6 is 6:15

ਪੌਣੇ - PAUNAY
For numbers, Paunay = 1/4 less.
For example
Paunay 2 is 1.75
Paunay 4 is 3.75
Paunay 6 is 5.75

For time, Paunay is 15 minutes less.
For example
Paunay 2 is 1:45
Paunay 4 is 3:45
Paunay 6 is 5:45

ਡੇਡ - DEDH
This is a fixed number in both conditions.
For number: Dedh is 1.5
For time: Dedh is 1:30

ਟਾਈ - DHAEE
This a fixed number in both conditions.
For number: Dhaee is 2.5
For time: Dhaee is 2:30

ਸਾਡੇ - SADHE
Only for numbers and time greater than 2.
For numbers, Sadhe is 1/2 more
For example
Sadhe 3 is 3.5
Sadhe 4 is 4.5
Sadhe 6 is 6.5

For time, it is 30 minutes more.
For example
Sadhe 3 is 3:30
Sadhe 4 is 4.30
Sadhe 6 is 6:30

Copyright Mighty Minds Publishing Pte Ltd (Singapore)